Ingot name is used for the large sized castings and there are no exact standard proportions for ingots. In steelmaking, it is the first pace among semi-finished casting commodities. Ingots typically need a second practice of shaping for an instance cold or hot working, milling or cutting to get a utilitarian end product. Ingot generally has rectangular or square cross section; however it is not basic that it should be even all through its length.
Large diameter seamless hot-rolled steel ingot casting can add fine-tuning of steel and eliminate imperfections so that the steel thickness mechanical properties are improved. This development is mostly revealed in the direction along the rolling direction to a definite degree, the steel is no longer uniform in all orientations; occurred bubbles, cracks when pouring, can be welded at a high temperature and pressure.
For ferromagnetic materials such as iron, magnetic particle inspection should be given main concern, because of its high detection sensitivity to detect discontinuities. In favour of non-ferromagnetic material like stainless steel seamless pipe, then using penetration testing methodology.
It should be noted that after the exposure of specified seamless and welded steel tubes area, to spot flaws in the expansion pipe joints or ends. Like in an austenitic seamless carbon steel pipe, if insulation is smashed or when the rain may have flow into the site, considerate to perform penetration testing to recognize stress corrosion cracking or pitting surface aspects.
After hot rolling, the steel inside the non-metallic chemical compounds (mainly sulphide and oxide, and silicates) is presented into the sheet with delamination mode of separate layers. Layer thickness and orientation of the steel tension measures difficulty significantly and there may be Steel weld shrinkage prone to cracks. Extension and narrowing of metal around the weld zone of the yield point strain often reach numerous times outsized than the load caused by the strain; remaining stresses caused by irregular cooling. Left over stresses in the lack of external force from the internal balance of stress, both hot-rolled steel section such various residual stress, the greater the cross-sectional area generally of steel, the residual stress is larger.